This course is a treatise on problem-solving in conventional and unconventional gas reservoir engineering and production through practical methods. Although much oil production technology applies to the gas wells and the natural gas reservoirs, many differences exist at a fundamental level due to compressible nature of gas, the complexity of reservoir formation, and the intricacies of gas-formation interactions. This course helps the attendees understand and recognize these differences to enable handling conventional and unconventional gas production problems appropriately.
El curso tiene una intensidad de 40 horas y se desarrollara durante cinco días.
1. INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL GASES
- Natural gas resources
- Phase behavior (pure and multi-component mixtures)
- Quantitative phase behavior using equations of state
- Prediction of properties of dry natural gases, gas condensates, reservoir waters and gas hydrates.
2. GAS FLOW MEASUREMENTS
- Dynamic gas flow rate measurements using orifice meter, critical flow prover and choke nipple
3. GAS FLOW IN WELLBORE
- Theoretical framework for description of flow in gas wells
- Estimation of static and flowing bottomhole pressures
- Flow of natural gas fluids in wellbore
- Effect of liquids on the flowing bottom hole pressure
- Correlations for predicting two-phase flow behavior
4. GAS WELL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
- Forecasting gas well production performance.
5. FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA
- Theoretical description of transient fluid flow in porous media; Nonlinear diffusivity equation for slightly-compressible and compressible fluid flow in porous media
- Dimensionless forms of the gas flow diffusivity equation
- Practical solutions to the gas flow diffusivity equation, e.g., Exponential-Integral solution for infinite cylindrical reservoir with a line-source
- The concept of radius of investigation
- Principle of superposition and Horner’s approximation
- Van Everdingen and Hurst solutions to the gas flow diffusivity equation
- Quadratic solutions to the gas flow diffusivity equation
6. PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTING OF GAS WELLS
- Analysis techniques for draw-down (flow) and build-up tests in homogeneous gas reservoirs
- Capturing non-Darcian flow effects during gas production
- Interference well testing in heterogeneous anisotropic gas reservoirs
- Special techniques for well tests involving naturally fractured gas reservoirs.
7. DELIVERABILITY TESTING OF GAS WELLS
- Theory of deliverability test analysis
- Four deliverability tests (Flow-after-flow, Single-point, Isochronal and Modified Isochronal Tests).
8. DECLINE-CURVE ANALYSIS FOR GAS WELLS
- Conventional Decline-curve Analysis Techniques
- Fetkovich Decline Type-curves
- Carter Decline Type-curves.
9. GAS VOLUMES AND MATERIAL BALANCE CALCULATIONS
- Volumetric reservoirs (Dry gas reservoirs, wet-gas reservoirs, gas-condensate reservoirs, geo-pressured gas reservoir)
- Gas Reservoirs with Water Influx
- Water Influx Models
10. GAS RESERVOIR SIMULATION
- Finite Difference Approximation for the Diffusivity Equation
- Solution Accuracy
- Numerical Simulation of Real Gas Reservoir Flow.
11. UNCONVENTIONAL GAS RESERVOIRS
- Introduction to the Unconventional Gas Resources
- Coalbed Methane “CBM” and Enhanced-CBM Recoveries; Tight Gas Reservoirs; Natural Gas Hydrates; Gas Shale
- Horizontal Gas Well Performance
- Material Balance Equation for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs.
12. SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS
- Introduction, current shale plays, production trends in North America
- Drilling completion and stimulation technologies
- Horizontal well drilling
- Open hole completion design
- Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing
- Micro-seismic monitoring
13. SHALE GAS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
- Laboratory measurements of shale gas storage & transport using Barnett core plugs under confining stress
- Gas in-place calculations
- Gas transport calculations
- Formation linear flow modeling
- Fracture interference study
- History-matching studies with multiple-fractures
- Fracture net present value and discounted well revenue calculations
- Optimization of multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in horizontal wells
- Case studies using Barnett, Eagle Ford, Marcellus shale gas wells
- Decline curve analysis with examples from Woodford shale gas wells
14. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN NATURAL GAS PRODUCTIONS
15. ENHANCED GAS RECOVERIES FROM NATURAL GAS RESOURCES
16. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING NATURAL GAS RESOURCES