Understanding the role of reservoir rock properties is the key to practically all aspects of the petroleum business. Principles, measurements, applications, and integration of rock properties for reservoir description will be discussed in depth. Through a combination of class discussion and exercises/ workshops, participants will learn how to calculate permeability from porosity and other petrophysical properties. Using core data and data from open hole logs participants will be able to evaluate porosity, permeability, and saturation in a variety of reservoirs. Concepts for identifying flow units, such as RQI (Reservoir Quality Index), FZI (Flow Zone Indicator), net-pay cut-off, Winland R35 and Pittman R45, will be discussed and illustrated with actual cases. Naturally fractured reservoirs are discussed in great details. Knowing how to integrate petrophysical information with other data sources, such as well test data, to identify and characterize flow units will improve participants’ ability to assess technical risk when examining hydrocarbon opportunities.
At the end of this course, the participants will be able to do the following:
- Generate permeability-porosity relations unique to their reservoir.
- Use FZI (Flow Zone Index) concept to locate flow units.
- Perform rock typing & reservoir zoning using Winland R35 and Pittman Techniques.
- Identify and characterize flow units in clean sandstone formations.
- Identify and characterize flow units in shaly sandstone formations.
- Determine fracture porosity and permeability.
- Calculate Porosity partitioning coefficient of a naturally fractured reservoir.
- Calculate storage capacity and inter-porosity flow factor from well tests.
- Integrate core, log and well test data.
- Understand the role of porosity in sand production.
- Calculate horizontal permeability from measured vertical permeability data.
- Use MDT testing to determine vertical permeability.
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
- Petroleum engineers who have been out of school for several years.
- Recently hired petroleum engineers, such as production engineers, drilling engineers, and geological engineers.
- Recently hired geologists and geophysicists with a good mathematical background, and who are involved in the area of formation evaluation and field development.
- Engineers who graduated with a degree in chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, etc. and are involved in reservoir evaluation.
1. RESOURCES AND RESERVES
- R/P Ratio: DNA of a company/country.
- Petroleum Reserves. (Video)
- Estimating Reserves.
- Estimating Recovery Efficiency.
- Unconventional Reserves: Residual Oil Zone and Transition Zone.
- Fluid Contacts.
2. ROCK PROPERTIES AND RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITYS
- Reservoir scales & Heterogeneity.
- Permeability-Porosity: GR-Density Log Model.
- Permeability Anisotropy Models.
- Directional Permeability From Layered- Resistivity Models.
- Vertical Permeability in Clayey Formations.
- Permeability and Porosity Distribution.
- Permeability Averaging Techniques.
- Porosity Averaging Techniques.
- Lorenz Heterogeneity Coefficient.
- Dykstra-Parsons Heterogeneity Coefficient.
3. ROCK TYPING, RESERVOIR ZONING & FLOW UNITS
- Fundamental Permeability-Porosity Model.
- Statistical Permeability-Porosity Correlations.
- Kozeny Equation.
- Carman-Kozeny Equation.
- Specific Surface Area.
- Universal Permeability-Porosity Model & Flow Units.
- Generalized Carman-Kozeny Equation.
- RQI (Reservoir Quality Index) and FZI (Flow Zone Index) from Core Analysis.
- FZI from NMR & J-Function.
- FZI from Free Fluid Index (FFI).
- Normalized RQI: Locating Flow Units with respect to depth.
- A Geology Perspective of Flow Units.
4. NET-PAY CUT-OFF, WINLAND R35 & FLOW UNITS
- Net-Pay, How to Cut-Off.
- Winland R35, Pittman R-apex and Flow Units.
- Cut-Off Determination in Low Permeability Reservoirs.
- Relating FZI, RQI, Pore-Throat Radius & Winland R35.
- Leverett J-Function.
- Reservoir characterization by the Jfunction.
- Identification & Characterization of Flow Units in Shaly Formations.
- Log-derived evaluation of shaly sands.
5. NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS
- Petrophysical Evaluation of Naturally Fractured Rocks. (Video)
- Geological vs. Engineering Classification of Natural Fractures.
- Indicators of Natural Fractures, Visual Identification of Fractures.
- Fracture Porosity Determination.
- Porosity Partitioning Coefficient, Fracture Intensity Index.
- Permeability-Porosity Relationships.
- Fracture Area, Fracture Storage Capacity, Fracture Conductivity.
- Cementation Factor in Carbonate Reservoirs
- Fracture Properties from pressure transient tests
- Composite Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.
- Geologic Evaluation on Carbonate Reservoirs.
6. INTEGRATING CORE, LOG AND WELL TEST DATA
- Fundamentals of Well Tests. (Video)
- Flow Tests: Conventional and Modern Techniques.
- Buildup Tests: Conventional and Modern Techniques.
- Flow Units From Well Tests.
- MDT: Flow Units, Vertical Permeability.
7. EFFECT OF STRESS ON RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
- Pore Compressibility, Effectiveness of Pore Pressure in Countering Stress.
- Effect of Pore Compressibility in Reserves Calculations.
- Converting Lab-data to Reservoir Data.
- Effect of Stress on Porosity, Permeability and Resistivity.
- Permeability-Porosity-Stress Relationships.
- Critical Pore Pressure, Critical borehole pressure.
- Porosity as Strength Indicator to Evaluate Sand Production.
8. RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT
- Reservoir Management of Mature Field. (Video)
- Reservoir Simulation.
- Study Objectives.
- Data Analysis.
- Reservoir Description.
- History Matching.
- Carbonate Reservoir Management.
- Field Cases.
APPENDIX A - GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF RESERVOIRS
- Introduction to Petroleum Geology (Video)
- Objectives of Coring Programs.
- Conventional Coring.
- Core Alteration and Handling.
- Core Alteration During Recovery.
- Filtration Invasion.
- Core Preservation.
- Core Analysis. (Video)
APPENDIX B - FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR ROCKS
- Factors Affecting The Magnitude Of Porosity.
- Engineering Classification Of Porosity.
- Geological Classification Of Porosity.
- Fluid Saturation.
- Classification Of Permeability.
- Measurement Of Permeability.
- Klinkerberg Effect.
- Fluids Contacts.
- Wettability & Interfacial Tension.
- Capillary Pressure & Water Saturation.
APPENDIX C - FORMATION RESISTIVITY & WATER SATURATION
- Wireline Logs (Video)
- Formation Resistivity Factor (FR)
- Laboratory Measurements Formation Water Resistivity
- Water Resistivity from SP Log
- Formation Resistivity Correlations
- FR & Cementation
- FR & Water Saturation
- Saturation Exponent
- Water Saturation in Shaly Formations
- Simandoux Model
- Hilchie Model
- Water Saturation from Density Logs
- Advances in Evaluation of Shaly
"Este curso hace parte del programa especial de capacitación: Diplomado en Evaluación de Formaciones". La participación en el diplomado es opcional y no constituye un requisito para tomar este curso.