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CURSOS

AVO Analysis and Seismic Inversion

Satinder Chopra M.Sc., M.Phil
Descripción del instructor

Received M.Sc. and M.Phil. degrees in physics from Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India. He joined the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) of India in 1984 and served there till 1997. In 1998 he joined CTC Pulsonic at Calgary, which later became Scott Pickford and Core Laboratories Reservoir Technologies. Currently, he is working as Manager, Reservoir Services at Arcis Corporation, Calgary. In the last 25 years Satinder has worked in regular seismic processing, and interactive interpretation, but has spent more time in special processing of seismic data involving seismic attributes including coherence and textures, seismic inversion, AVO, VSP processing and frequency enhancement of seismic data. His research interests focus on techniques that are aimed at characterization of reservoirs. He has published 5 books and more than 175 papers and abstracts and likes to make presentations at any beckoning opportunity. He is the Chief Editor of the CSEG RECORDER, past - member of the SEG ‘The Leading Edge’ Editorial Board, and the Ex-Chairman of the SEG Publications Committee. He received the AAPG Award of Excellence ‘Top Ten’ Poster presentation for his poster presented at the 2009 AAPG Annual Meeting at Denver. Of the 3 presentations (1 oral, 2 posters) that he made at the 2008 SEG Convention at Las Vegas, Nevada, all three were ranked among the top 30 presented at the SEG Meeting. He received several awards at ONGC, and more recently has received the ‘Best Poster’ Award for his paper entitled ‘Seismic attributes for fault/fracture characterization’, presented at the 2007 SEG Convention held at San Antonio. He received the ‘Best Paper’ Award for his paper entitled ‘Curvature and Iconic Coherence - Attributes adding value to 3D Seismic Data Interpretation’ presented at the CSEG Technical Luncheon, Calgary, in January 2007 as well as the 2005 CSEG Meritorious Services Award. He and his colleagues have received the CSEG Best Poster Awards in successive years from 2002 to 2005. He is a member of SEG, CSEG, CSPG, CHOA, EAGE, AAPG, APEGGA (Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta) and TBPG (Texas Board of Professional Geoscientists).

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COURSE CONTENT

 

1. SEISMIC PROPAGATION

  • Media for wave propagation
  • Types of waves
  • Elastic constants
  • Factors controlling Poisson’s ratio include:
  • Propagation of waves
  • Partitioning of energy.

 

2. ROCK PHYSICS FOUNDATION FOR AVO ANALYSIS: GASSMANN’S EQUATIONS AND FLUID SUBSTITUTION

  • Gassmann’s equations
  • Gassmann’s assumptions
  • Using Gassmann’s equations
  • Estimating K*
  • The Fluid Substitution Paradox
  • Fluid properties
  • Raymer-Hunt-Gardner Equations
  • Saturated versus frame moduli
  • Low gas saturations
  • Sensitivity and uncertainty
  • Differences in frame modulus from inverted modulus and between brine and gas sands
  • Alternatives to Gassmann’s Equations
  • Conclusions and Discussion.

 

3. EARLY SEISMIC OBSERVATIONS: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO THE BIRTH OF AVO

  • Introduction
  • Bright spot technology before AVO
  • Increased understanding of conventional hydrocarbon indicators
  • Shear wave exploration
  • Other methods
  • Birth of AVO
  • AVO is widely used and lessons learned
  • Studying offset dependence of reflection coefficients with ‘equal-angle particle stacks’
  • Classification of AVO anomalies
  • Commercialization of AVO
  • Bright Spots: Oil versus Gas
  • Rock physics analysis and AVO
  • The Impact of 3D Seismic
  • Crossplotting of AVO attributes
  • Lambda-Mu-Rho analysis
  • Application of AVO in exploration/development projects

 

4. ZOEPPRITZ EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPROXIMATIONS

  • Bortfeld approximation
  • Richards and Frasier (Aki and Richards) approximation
  • Shuey’s approximation
  • Hilterman’s approximation
  • Smith and Gidlow approximation
  • Fatti et al approximation
  • Lamé parameter extraction
  • Xu and Bancroft extraction
  • Gray et al extraction
  • Approximations for Converted-Wave and Anisotropic Reflectivity.

 

5. FACTORS AFFECTING SEISMIC AMPLITUDES AND PROCESSING FOR AVO

  • Introduction
  • Spherical spreading
  • Transmission
  • Influence of scattering attenuation in heterogeneous overburden on AVO
  • Intrinsic attenuation and dispersion
  • Mode conversions
  • Effects of tuning and NMO stretch
  • Removal of noise
  • AVO in structurally complex areas
  • Anisotropy
  • Effects due to receiver coupling
  • Effects due to array directivity
  • Preprocessing for AVO
  • 3-D AVO
  • AVO attribute processing
  • Estimation of intercept and gradient.

 

6. AVO INTERPRETATION

  • Introduction
  • Modeling
  • AVO techniques
  • Attribute stacks
  • AVO combination indicators
  • Classification of AVO responses
  • Crossplotting
  • Noise and AVO
  • AVO and visualization
  • AVO polarization attributes
  • Lambda-Mu-Rho λμρ
  • AVO and neural networks.

 

7. AVO and Anisotropy

  • Introduction
  • Anisotropy
  • Weak anisotropy in rocks
  • Physical meaning of anisotropy parameters
  • Offset-dependent effects of anisotropy
  • Numerical solution to Zoeppritz equations
  • Moveout velocity analysis in anisotropic media
  • Azimuthal anisotropy
  • Methods for fracture analysis

 

8. SEISMIC INVERSION, CONVERTED WAVE AVO, AND UNCERTAINTY IN AVO ANALYSIS

  • Seismic inversion
  • Impedance inversion
  • Band limited nature of seismic signal
  • Sparse-spike inversion
  • Model-based inversion
  • Elastic impedance
  • Local and global optimization in inversion
  • Prestack versus poststack inversion
  • Simultaneous inversion
  • Poisson Impedance.

Converted-wave AVO

  • Zoeppritz equations for PS reflections
  • PS Elastic Impedance
  • Simultaneous P-P and P-S inversion

Uncertainty in AVO

  • Bayes theorem
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Quantifying uncertainty
  • Quantifying uncertainty in practicen 

 

9. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

  • Introduction
  • AVO Processing Issues
  • Aspects of Seismic Data Acquisition for AVO Analysis
  • Amplitude Calibration and Balancing
  • AVO Attributes and Crossplotting
  • The Rigidity Contrast Paradox
  • Comments on Class IV Gas Sands
  • Dynamic Elastic Moduli Determination
  • Azimuthal AVO
  • Carbonate AVO
  • Tuning and Frequency Dependent AVO
  • AVO Risking
  • AVO in Practice
  • The Future of AVO.

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